HORMA Domain Proteins and a Trip13-like ATPase Regulate Bacterial cGAS-like Enzymes to Mediate Bacteriophage Immunity.
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Mol Cell (2019)
<p>Bacteria are continually challenged by foreign invaders, including bacteriophages, and have evolved a variety of defenses against these invaders. Here, we describe the structural and biochemical mechanisms of a bacteriophage immunity pathway found in a broad array of bacteria, including E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This pathway uses eukaryotic-like HORMA domain proteins that recognize specific peptides, then bind and activate a cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferase (CD-NTase) to generate a cyclic triadenylate (cAAA) second messenger; cAAA in turn activates an endonuclease effector, NucC. Signaling is attenuated by a homolog of the AAA+ ATPase Pch2/TRIP13, which binds and disassembles the active HORMA-CD-NTase complex. When expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli, this pathway confers immunity against bacteriophage λ through an abortive infection mechanism. Our findings reveal the molecular mechanisms of a bacterial defense pathway integrating a cGAS-like nucleotidyltransferase with HORMA domain proteins for threat sensing through protein detection and negative regulation by a Trip13 ATPase.</p>