Preparation and characterization of metal-substituted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases.
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:J Biol Inorg Chem, Volume 23, Issue 6, p.887-901 (2018)
<p>Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCO) are non-heme iron enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of alkene bonds in carotenoid and stilbenoid substrates. Previously, we showed that the iron cofactor of CAO1, a resveratrol-cleaving member of this family, can be substituted with cobalt to yield a catalytically inert enzyme useful for trapping active site-bound stilbenoid substrates for structural characterization. Metal substitution may provide a general method for identifying the natural substrates for CCOs in addition to facilitating structural and biophysical characterization of CCO-carotenoid complexes under normal aerobic conditions. Here, we demonstrate the general applicability of cobalt substitution in a prototypical carotenoid cleaving CCO, apocarotenoid oxygenase (ACO) from Synechocystis. Among the non-native divalent metals investigated, cobalt was uniquely able to stably occupy the ACO metal binding site and inhibit catalysis. Analysis by X-ray crystallography and X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the Co(II) forms of both ACO and CAO1 exhibit a close structural correspondence to the native Fe(II) enzyme forms. Hence, cobalt substitution is an effective strategy for generating catalytically inert but structurally intact forms of CCOs.</p>