Structural and Biochemical Investigations of the [4Fe-4S] Cluster-Containing Fumarate Hydratase from .
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Biochemistry, Volume 58, Issue 49, p.5011-5021 (2019)
<p>Class I fumarate hydratases (FHs) are central metabolic enzymes that use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to catalyze the reversible conversion of fumarate to -malate. The parasite , which is responsible for leishmaniasis, expresses two class I FH isoforms: mitochondrial LmFH-1 and cytosolic LmFH-2. In this study, we present kinetic characterizations of both LmFH isoforms, present 13 crystal structures of LmFH-2 variants, and employ site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the enzyme's mechanism. Our kinetic data confirm that both LmFH-1 and LmFH-2 are susceptible to oxygen-dependent inhibition, with data from crystallography and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that oxygen exposure converts an active [4Fe-4S] cluster to an inactive [3Fe-4S] cluster. Our anaerobically conducted kinetic studies reveal a preference for fumarate over -malate. Our data further reveal that single alanine substitutions of T467, R421, R471, D135, and H334 decrease values 9-16000-fold without substantially affecting values, suggesting that these residues function in catalytic roles. Crystal structures of LmFH-2 variants are consistent with this idea, showing similar bidentate binding to the unique iron of the [4Fe-4S] cluster for substrate -malate as observed in wild type FH. We further present LmFH-2 structures with substrate fumarate and weak inhibitors succinate and malonate bound in the active site and the first structure of an LmFH that is substrate-free and inhibitor-free, the latter showing increased mobility in the C-terminal domain. Collectively, these data provide insight into the molecular basis for the reaction catalyzed by LmFHs, enzymes that are potential drug targets against leishmaniasis.</p>